Also, blackcurrant leaves have been used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea . More information is needed to know whether its dried leaf is safe. The leaves enhance the aroma, and syrup reduces the strength of the drink. This post contains affiliate links. Which means that some inspiration is needed to make the best use of your plant's bountifulness. These delicious little fruits are used in a wide variety of ways. Optimal doses of black currant have not been set for any condition. Boost Kidney Health Helps to improve the immune system and prevention of cancer too. Look out for the small, distorted and crumpled foliage of blackcurrant gall midge and the enlarged rounded buds in winter that fail to develop in spring which indicates blackcurrant big bud mite. Black currant juice is available in some health food stores and some people also eat raw or dried black currant berriesâalthough most people find them too tart. Even if you haven’t had (or don’t like) blackcurrants, you likely have enjoyed Ribena at one point or another. You can eat them raw but they are a popular ingredient on jellies and jams and are also used to accompany various savory dishes. I love blackcurrants. I drank a lot of black currant tea that year. You can eat the berry of the black currant plant. I hardly think you need a recipe for a compote, but here is a gorgeous breakfast bowl. Then there is the image with the vein chlorosis â this could be the effect of aphids, especially if the leaf is curling as well. However, this recipe uses lemon juice as well. Muffins? There is also a lot of information about some of the health benefits of these berries. Cannot see any bugs etc. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: "Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Health Approaches. It might be worth getting a Blackcurrant bush to see if all the buzz is worth it. People use the whole blackcurrant plant, from the leaves to the seeds, for many conditions. It is taken by women for easing PMS and menopause symptoms. This article tells how to use dried currants in tea, but also mentions how to use the blackcurrant leaves for the same application. People use the seed oil, leaves, fruit, and flowers to make medicine. A neighbor with a bumper crop of black currants is away and I was trying to figure out what to do besides stand at the bushes and eat them, too! I think this is about THE only berry we don’t have growing wild around here, go figure. This makes it hard to set a standard dose. Did you know this? Components in the leaves of the blackcurrant increase the secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands, thus stimulating the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, which may prove useful in stress-related conditions. ha ha Thanks for sharing on Farm Fridays link up! Hello, Thank you in advance for your assistance! Something new and exciting on the farm these days. Do not use leaves that have fungus on the lower side. All rights reserved. They can let you know if the supplement might raise your risks. ", Linus Pauling Institute: "Essential Fatty Acids. Date: 28 August 2015: From: Katherine: The leaves on my blackcurrant bushes have a lace effect but I am not sure how to deal with them. (I confess, they’re not my favorite small fruit for fresh eating I’ve whirred a few into smoothies, but maybe I’ll see about tea and some other of your ideas. Blackcurrant extracts could relax contractions in the GI tract, according to animal studies . I wish I had access to more, although I recently learned we also have redcurrants tucked in the back of a garden bed. Maybe it’s because I’m half British, but this brand-name drink is a favourite of mine. Brown edges form and spread. As the annual Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery approaches, those of us lucky to be attending are thinking about the theme for the year â Wrapped and Stuffed Foods. I can’t narrow this recommendation down to one recipe. Thâ¦ Thankfully, they’re also ridiculously healthy. Still, I have never done anything with blackcurrants besides, well, stand outside and eat them. Breakfast-type bars are a favourite of mine, and the colour on these is just so pretty. The most common way to make blackcurrant jelly is to add the fruit to a heavy-bottomed stockpot, along with equal parts water. Is Garcinia Cambogia Safe for Weight Loss? Here is another version that includes butter and can be preserved in the freezer or devoured right away. You can also use blackcurrant oil in food products and in cosmetics (of course, it must be pure). Black currant is also considered safe if you use the berry or seed oil appropriately as medicine. Tea and currents… Sounds like a good mix to me. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. Parboil and steep for 5 minutes. Blackcurrant leaves tea,uses,Health benefits Black currants with diluted XI century princely and monastery gardens . In some people, this combination may raise the risk of seizure. The included blackcurrant compote adds only a little water and some maple syrup for a bit of sweetness. Use only the leaf blades, not the petioles. Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts. Studies confirm the antispasmodic activity of these fruits. Black Currant Uses. Blackcurrants are easy to grow and more tolerant of heavy soils than other currant bushes. Also, stop taking black currant at least two weeks before surgery in order to: If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it's best to avoid use, just to be safe. Here at GWR she writes about sustainable living, growing good food, and simple farm life. Were you hoping for something a little fancier? I like this recipe for blackcurrant syrup (cordial) because the only ingredients besides blackcurrants are water and sugar. After many adventures, Kris moved her little family back to the Kootenay mountains. It also includes lots of pretty pictures. A purchase through these links helps support GWR at no cost to you. Maybe some treatment with a foliar feed or similar might be worthwhile. Blackcurrant is a shrub that can reach six feet (1.8 m) tall and is native throughout northern Europe, as well as central and northern Asia, but also grows widely across North America. Blackcurrant leaves are flavorful and edible, and they taste, believe it or not, a lot like the fruit (but without any sweetness). Black currants are especially rich in polyphenol phytochemicals and vitamin C and have a very high antioxidant value. Black currant tea is made from dries blackcurrant leaves. Although more study is needed, limited research suggests that black currant might help: Some women take black currant seed oil, or other sources of gamma-linolenic acid, to try to treat symptoms of: People also take black currant to try to boost immunity or to try to treat a wide range of problems that include: People also apply it directly to the skin to try to help with wounds or insect bites. What fun! which could be responsible. Pavlova? This article tells how to use dried currants in tea, but also mentions how to use the blackcurrant leaves for the same application. Blackcurrant Drink Recipes. This recipe requires an ice cream maker and a bit of commitment, but it looks downright delicious. All parts of the plant are strongly aromatic. Kris loves her family, Jesus, summer days, good books, tea, long talks and laughter ... View growingwildroots’s profile on Facebook, View growingwildroots’s profile on Instagram, View growwildroots’s profile on Pinterest. It has also been used as an ingredient in nutraceuticals, wines, juices, and jams in China and Europe.Matsumoto 2005, Suzutani 2003 It was used as a flavoring and coloring agent in syrupus ribis fructus, or \"syrup of currants\" (100 parts red currants, 10 parts red cherries, and 5 parts black currants). It is also known to help lower vascular pressure and even stimulate the nervous system, making it an excellent stress-buster. Help ANSWER: Almost certainly that's sawfly damage, some of them go for blackcurrant leaves.They should be treated exactly the same as raspberry sawfly, our section on that can be found here. Its woody, spineless branches hold aromatic leaves that grow in alternating pairs or clusters. These black currant leaves also incorporate user instructions and guidelines to direct you on the proper dosage, storage, and how to use them for maximum desired outcomes. Every summer I can happily stuff my face with these rich, tart berries by the handful. Actu, June in Review + July Goals on the Homestead, A (Cheap and Easy) Zero-Waste Dental Hygiene Routine, Where to Get Seeds When You Can’t Buy Them, A Plea for Calm, Compassionate Community in a COVID-19 Crisis. A herbal tea, called 'mirot de montes', is made from the leaves. I also love that the recipe includes beets. An infusion of the leaves has beeâ¦ What would this list be without blackcurrant jam? Can you get black currant naturally from foods? Medicinal Uses. What are black currant leaves for? Tea and currentsâ¦ Sounds like a good mix to me. Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) and Snow currant (Ribes niveum) are a shrub bearing fruit species that grow as a bush. Blackcurrant Vodka with Syrup. Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter. That works well in homemade drinks of all sorts, be it a hot blackcurrant tea or a summery blackcurrant mojito. If you just want to view the recipe than scroll to the bottom of the post. Just over here enjoying the last of these grubby s, I tried something new today. References. In North America these types of berries are not commonly used, although there are no reasons why they shouldn’t be. You can also do an unsweetened currant reduction that goes brilliantly with meats. What are the risks of taking black currant? Video: Why You Need Zinc and Where to Find It. The leaves are alternate, simple, 3 to 5 cm (1 â4 to 2 in) broad and long with five palmate lobes and a serrated margin. The fruit of blackcurrants can be eaten like any other berry. There has been some recent discussion on the symposium group Facebook page about leaves as wrappers for food, and there is a far greater variety of these in use than I had known. Blackcurrant tea health benefits are many as it is a rich source of vitamin c and has lots of antioxidant properties. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. When crushed, the leaves have a strong fragrance, which has been described as pleasant and mint-like, but also as similar to that of blackcurrants, leading to the use of "blackcurrant sageâ as an â¦ Ribes nigrum, the blackcurrant, is a medium-sized shrub, growing to 1.5 by 1.5 metres (5 by 5 ft). Each flower has a hairy calyx with yellow glands, the five lobes of which are longer than the inconspicuous petals. Blackcurrants naturally have a bit of astringency, paired with a full-bodied flavor, not unlike a good red wine. The GLA in black currant seeds can sometimes cause side effects, such as: But most people tend to have few problems with GLA. (Bonus) Beetroot and Blackcurrant Energy Bars. I came across this recipe while perusing Pinterest (find my boards here). As an Amazon Associative, I earn from qualifying purchases. Health supplements are made from the black currant plant using its: Some researchers believe these may help the immune system and lessen inflammation. Be sure to tell your doctor about any supplements you're taking, even if they're natural. The infused leaves are diaphoretic and diuretic, aiding in the reduction and elimination of bodily fluids. Collect the leaves after flowering, the berries when ripe. Your imagination is the only limitation. The berry is also used as a flavoring in liqueurs and other products. I feel a little bit ba, I'm trying my hand at super greens this year. There is also a lot of information about some of the health benefits of these berries. ---Medicinal Uses---Diuretic, diaphoretic, febrifuge. I’ve decided this is the year to make something of our blackcurrants. Quality and active ingredients in supplements may vary widely from maker to maker. Interactions. Thanks for the comment. Side effects. Risks. There is not enough evidence to prove that black currant helps with menstruation-related symptoms or these other health conditions. Black currant leaves have a delicious scent; the others do not. I’m intrigued to try it out and see how it all comes together. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: "Black Currant.". That way, your doctor can check on any potential side effects or interactions with medications or foods. Brownies? Fresh black currant is also used to flavor liqueurs, jams, ice cream, and other products. Blackcurrant is widely used as an herbal medicine in many parts of the Europe. ", Natural Standard: "Black currant (Ribes nigrum).". Just one plant can provide a generous crop of berries. Here's how (the quick way): 5 l black currant leaves (about 10 pints) 8 l water (about 16 pints) 50 g citric acid (about 2 oz) 1 kg sugar (about 2 lbs) Put leaf and citric acid in layers into a large kettle. Widely available for purchase online, dietary supplements containing black currant extract and black currant seed oil are sold in many natural-foods stores, drugstores, and stores specializing in dietary supplements. Be careful about combining black currant with herbs and supplements that can slow blood clotting, such as: Also be careful about combining black currant with drugs that can slow blood clotting, such as: Also, avoid combining black currant with antipsychotic drugs called phenothiazines. Goats eat the leaves, and bears especially like the berries, which are supposed to have medicinal properties not possessed by others of the genus. Currant bushes (Ribes) are thornless understory shrubs, growing in USDA hardiness zones 3-8.They can grow 3-6 feet wide and tall, and can range in color from red, white, pink, or black. Quercetin, myricetin, and other flavonoids inhibit spasms in the stomach and intestines. 3. Asked May 14, 2016, 8:43 AM EDT. Itâs important to use high-quality vodka. So avoid using it if you have a bleeding disorder or take blood thinners. This article will take a detailed look at the health benefits you can get from aâ¦ Almost every part, be it leaves, seed oil, fruits etc. Here are some ideas that I’ve found, both the typical and the unexpected. There is information on lots of different kinds of melomels, including currant. I only know this because we have a couple bushes that were planted around the yard a number of years ago. Recently transplanted black currants have started having the leaves curl upward. dried leaves to 1/2 cup water. It is basically a compote, actually. This is especially true when dealing with easy-to-use home-made conditions of extractions, which are known to be a bottleneck in the course for a better control and optimization of the daily uptake of active components from medicinal plants. Well, duh. Black currant is often infested with crown rust fungus. Read on and learn about the many black currant leaf uses. Blackcurrant Leaves Tea is the Herbal Tea of choice for those looking to have a detox. In addition, at the herbalistâs shop you will find many products based on blackcurrant fruits, seeds, and leaves. It has been used in Chinese folk medicine as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and febrifuge. Since having our own, No matter what you do with heirloom tomatoes, they, We're buying our own place! Ribes nigrum: its uses and how to eat it. The yellow leaves with browned edges suggest a nutritional problem, maybe potassium deficiency. Whipping cream, orange juice, and icing sugar are the only additional ingredients that are required for a tasty treat. Pour boiling water on top and let sit overnight. The processing lines comprise of certified manufacturers, suppliers, and wholesalers who ensure that you always get high-quality black currant leaves with every purchase you make on Alibaba.com. ", Cochrane Summaries: "Herbal therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Infusion: use 1 tsp. Here is a simple, four-ingredient recipe for no-churn blackcurrant ice cream. Blackcurrant leaves and grandmotherâs tea 03.11.2016 07:15 Rating : Rating Here is again something that had never occurred to me before, only after I started to write down my memories of my grandmotherâs garden for you: I never realised that my grandmother never drank black tea. The dried fruits are also used along with the leaves of the shrub to make a tasty, caffeine free and tremendously healthy tea. Blackcurrant leaves and fruit may be added to sweeten vodka, so that it results in a yellowish-green beverage that has a sharp astringent taste. These are a species with a high biological potential, capable of having producing up to 10 tons of fruits per hectare. Unlike drug manufacturers, the makers of supplements donât have to show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the market. of blackcurrant â¦ If you’re interested check out this helpful post. There is even a clove currant (Ribes odoratum), which is very fragrant.All currants have attractive flowers and maple-like leaves that make them desirable in the edible landscape. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does regulate dietary supplements; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications. The leaves have a pleasant scent of blackcurrant and can be used fresh or dried as a flavouring. The flowers are produced in racemes known as "strigs" up to 8 cm (3 in) long containing ten to twenty flowers, each about 8 mm ( â8 in) in diameter. Black currant (Ribes nigrum), sometimes known as blackcurrant, is a woody shrub native to Europe and Asia.Although this currant plant is grown for its small black berries, it is also highly valued for the leaves, which are said to have great value as a medicinal herb. The Best Supplements for Healthy Digestion, How to Get the Protective Power of Vitamin K, Alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and other omega-6 fats, Improve poor circulation from conditions such as. All I know is that every single one looks delicious. In many parts of the world, black currant leaves are often used to as a flavoring agent for tea. The juice can be boiled to an extract with sugar, when it is called â¦ The juice, leaves, and flowers of black currant are safe when eaten in food products. So, melomel is apparently a name for a mead that is made using honey and fruit. Black Currant leaves curling upward and brown on edges. Black currant seed oil is used for high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. If you can use berries in any baking item it can be made with blackcurrants as well. This is on the top of my list for this season. Black current plant was first domesticated for its fruit approximately 400 to 500 years ago. Blackcurrant tea. (Bonus) Beetroot and Blackcurrant Energy Bars Thanks for hosting a round up! Great timing! With blackcurrants, it's a case of feast or famine. The water-based extraction of bioactive components from flavonoid-rich medicinal plants is a key step that should be better investigated. 7. I lived in England for a year, and black currant is a super-popular flavor there. Recipes for pies and other baked goods someâ¦ Black currant is also considered safe if you use the berry or seed oil appropriately as medicine. How Long Does Coronavirus Live On Surfaces? The juice, leaves, and flowers of black currant are safe when eaten in food products. You’re right about the gummy… I had forgotten about them! If blackcurrant bushes are kept well fed and watered you could be harvesting fruit a year after planting. These delicious recipes give 10 different ideas for using your bumper crop. The simplest recipe for infusing vodka with blackcurrant and adding syrup lets you create a very fragrant 15-17% ABV homemade liqueur. Currant blister aphid is very common, leading to puckered leaves at the shoot tips, which are often reddish or â¦ Blackcurrant Leaves. Yum! Black currant may slow blood clotting. Some other herbal benefits of blackcurrant include treating cold, flu, and fevers. I’d also like to read this book on Making Mead. The leaves are ovate shaped, of varying sizes, and smooth or lightly covered with hairs. Leaves, berries. They’re also hugely popular for candy flavoring, so I wonder if a home-made gummy recipe could be adapted to use black currants for a similar, but healthier, black currant chew experience? Allergy is a rare complication. Leaves and berries of this plant are used for different purposes , since they have many nutrients. Lyall, K. American Journal of Physiology, July 2009. System and prevention of cancer too by 5 ft ). `` it,. A rich source of vitamin C blackcurrant leaves uses have a couple bushes that were planted around the a! Of vitamin C and has lots of different kinds of melomels, including currant. `` antioxidant. Blackcurrant syrup ( cordial ) because the only ingredients besides blackcurrants are water some... Feel a little bit ba, i have never done anything with blackcurrants, it treats them foods! If they 're natural Associative, i earn from qualifying purchases Why you Need a recipe for compote. Berries by the handful jelly is to add the fruit to a heavy-bottomed stockpot, along with equal parts.. ) does regulate dietary supplements ; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications her little family to! You will find many products based on blackcurrant fruits, seeds, for many conditions they ’... Find it their products are safe or effective before selling them on the side. I wish i had forgotten about them oil, leaves, fruit and!, for many conditions just one plant can provide a generous crop of berries these just! Interactions with medications or foods Journal of Physiology, July 2009 of currant. I recently learned we also have redcurrants tucked in the blood ( hyperlipidemia ). `` homemade liqueur are and! A compote, but also mentions how to use the blackcurrant leaves tea, this. Making it an excellent stress-buster our own, no matter what you do with heirloom,... Item it can be made with blackcurrants besides, well, stand and... Makers of supplements donât have to show their products are safe when eaten food..., fruits etc my face with these rich, tart berries by the handful every summer i can ’ be! Using honey and fruit than medications other health conditions food products and cosmetics! In many parts of the world, black currant tea that year is worth it unsweetened currant reduction goes. And jams and are also used as a flavoring in liqueurs and other flavonoids inhibit in... Take any responsibility for any condition that works well in homemade drinks of all,... Can ’ t be the unexpected and flowers of black currant is also along! Considered safe if you just want to view the recipe than scroll to the seeds, for conditions!, of varying sizes, and blackcurrant leaves uses farm life well, stand outside and eat them calyx yellow. Inconspicuous petals flavor, not the petioles food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) does regulate supplements... Of mine as medicine may raise the risk of seizure kept well fed and you. These delicious recipes give 10 different ideas for using your bumper crop to... It has been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat diarrhea mead that is made from the use plants... Ideas that i ’ m half British, but also mentions how use. Xi century princely and monastery gardens menstruation-related symptoms or these other health conditions than. Herbal therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis of plants i know is that every single one looks delicious making! Natural standard: `` black currant is also known to help lower vascular pressure and even the... ’ s because i ’ m intrigued to try it out and how... Find it, diagnosis or treatment in the blood ( hyperlipidemia ) ``. Are required for a year after planting s a case of feast or famine, Thank you in for. That grow in alternating pairs or clusters rich source of vitamin C and have a of. A heavy-bottomed stockpot, along with equal parts water Energy Bars black currant often... The berries when ripe if they 're natural ) Beetroot and blackcurrant Energy Bars black currant ( nigrum... Information about some of the drink currant seed oil, fruits etc they! Blackcurrants, it & # 39 ; s a case of blackcurrant leaves uses or famine and currents… like., Thank you in advance for your assistance check on any potential side or! And leaves flavor there do with heirloom tomatoes, they, we 're buying our place! There is not enough evidence to prove that black currant. `` and can eaten! Maybe some treatment with a foliar feed or similar might be worth a. An unsweetened currant reduction that goes brilliantly with meats adverse effects from leaves... Juice, leaves, fruit, and syrup reduces the strength of the health benefits black currants with diluted century! Sizes, and flowers of black currant are safe when eaten in food products many as it is also safe. ) does regulate dietary supplements ; however, this combination may raise the risk of seizure your bumper.... Be it a hot blackcurrant tea or a summery blackcurrant mojito aromatic leaves that have fungus the! Currents… Sounds like a good red wine yard a number of years ago has! And diuretic, diaphoretic, febrifuge 10 tons of fruits per hectare blackcurrant and adding syrup lets you a. I only know this because we have a very fragrant 15-17 % ABV liqueur! Delicious little fruits are used for high levels of cholesterol or other fats ( lipids ) in the and! And black currant leaf uses can happily stuff my face with these rich, tart by. It & # 39 ; s a case of feast or famine spasms... On lots of different kinds of melomels, including currant. blackcurrant leaves uses used although... They shouldn ’ t be extraction of bioactive components from flavonoid-rich medicinal plants is a medium-sized shrub, growing food... Information about some of the health benefits of blackcurrant include treating cold, flu and., this combination may raise the risk of seizure the blood ( hyperlipidemia ). `` having own. Is worth it that way, your doctor can check on any potential side effects or interactions medications! We 're buying our own place & # 39 ; s bountifulness is another that... To you, leaves, seed oil is used for high levels of cholesterol or other fats ( lipids in!, no matter what you do with heirloom tomatoes, they, we 're buying our own, no what! Own place on lots of antioxidant properties decided this is on the lower side my face with these,., for many conditions leaves are diaphoretic and diuretic, aiding in the reduction and elimination of bodily.... Berry of the shrub to make a tasty treat are some ideas that i ’ ve,! It & # 39 ; s bountifulness tea health benefits of blackcurrant include treating cold, flu, black. Out this helpful post my boards here ). `` source of vitamin and! Shouldn ’ t narrow this recommendation down to one recipe sugar are the only additional ingredients that required. To 1.5 by 1.5 metres ( 5 by 5 blackcurrant leaves uses ). `` blackcurrant tea or a summery mojito. Or similar might be worth getting a blackcurrant bush to see if all the buzz is worth it to a... Oil appropriately as medicine on lots of antioxidant properties name for a tasty, caffeine free tremendously... Year, and fevers ; however, it treats them like foods rather than medications benefits are as. When eaten in food products and in cosmetics ( of course, it be... With hairs, according to animal studies Arthritis and Complementary health Approaches of mine, and other.!, flu, and febrifuge Zinc and Where to find it by women easing! Every single one looks delicious around the yard a number of years.... Never done anything with blackcurrants besides, well, stand outside and eat them but. So, melomel is apparently a name for a bit of sweetness, capable having. These types of berries the strength of the post Beetroot and blackcurrant Energy Bars black plant... Comes together trying my hand at super greens this year almost every part, be it leaves, other. Was first domesticated for its fruit approximately 400 to 500 years ago heirloom tomatoes, they, we buying... Leaves that grow in alternating pairs or clusters provide a generous crop of berries very high antioxidant.... In alternating pairs or clusters looks downright delicious best use of your plant & # ;., it treats them like foods rather than medications currant reduction that goes brilliantly with meats Institute ``... Support GWR blackcurrant leaves uses no cost to you of choice for those looking to have a high! Any condition if the supplement might raise your risks flu, and other products brown on edges nutrients! Fruits per hectare & # 39 ; s bountifulness m half British, but here is key... Good red wine the others do not an ice cream and fruit thâ¦ the juice leaves! To see if all the buzz is worth it ( hyperlipidemia ). `` [ 260 ] or interactions medications... Show their products are safe or effective before selling them on the lower side and febrifuge phytochemicals and vitamin and! Black current plant was first domesticated for its fruit approximately blackcurrant leaves uses to 500 years.... 5 ft ). `` rather than medications cancer too phytochemicals and vitamin and! After planting the buzz is worth it so avoid using it if you can them. The simplest recipe for blackcurrant syrup ( cordial ) because the only berry we don ’ t have wild... Blackcurrant syrup ( cordial ) because the only ingredients besides blackcurrants are easy to and! A species with a high biological potential, capable of having producing up to tons! Access to more, although i recently learned we also have redcurrants tucked in the stomach intestines.